71. __________ consists of showing favoritism toward one gender over the other. a. Gender preferences b. Sexual harassment c. Gender bias d. Sexual discrimination 72. The text cites a comprehensive study of gender bias in schools, suggesting that girls’ self-esteem is undermined in school through a number of experiences. Which of the following experiences was not cited? a. a relative lack of attention from teachers b. direct rejection by instructors c. the stereotyping and invisibility of females in textbooks, especially in science and math texts d. test bias based on assumptions about the relative importance of visual-spatial ability, as compared with verbal ability 73. In discussing sports and gender socialization, the text points out that __________. a. both boys and girls are socialized to participate in highly competitive, rule-oriented games with a large number of participants b. boys have been socialized to play exclusively with others of their own age c. children spend more than half of their non-school time in play and games, and the types of games played does not differ with the child’s sex d. many women athletes believe that they have to manage the contradictory statuses of being both “women” and “athletes” 74. In discussing women’s participation in athletics, the text observes that __________. a. women athletes no longer encounter any status conflicts between being “women” and “athletes” b. few girls and women participate in sports that are regarded as exclusively “male” activities c. women college basketball players may deal with status conflict by dividing their lives into segments, as “women” and “athletes” d. men encourage women in participation in athletics 75. Regarding gender issues and television, which of the following statements is false? a. Television programs are sex-typed and white-male oriented. b. In television today, an equal number of male and female roles are depicted. c. Most of the characters in educational programs have male names and masculine voices. d. The media are a powerful source of gender stereotyping.